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Lexical minimum

In language system lexicon is the most important component of the content of learning, an initial and necessary foundation of speech: listening and speaking, reading and writing. Along with learning it is necessary to carry out assessment of language proficiency level to achieve positive results. A mechanism of assessment of state language proficiency level in the Republic of Kazakhstan is KAZTEST system.

The system of KAZTEST is intended to assess communicative competences of examinee basing on experience of widely known and approved test systems in world practice. KAZTEST represents rather volume and many-sided system of Kazakh language proficiency level assessment of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan and foreign citizens who carry out different types of activities in this territory. The methodical base of the system is based on the state standards of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which define requirements for communicative competences in Kazakh language proficiency.

Studying language is consistently accompanied by learning basic word stocks in practice. The basic word stock promotes vocabulary increase, formation of active and passive word fund. The basic word stock of each level test represents the minimum set of words and phrases, which corresponds to a certain level of state language proficiency: elementary, pre-intermediate, intermediate, upper-intermediate and advanced. The minimum is intended for independent studying of the Kazakh language and assessment of the level of language proficiency. The minimum was compiled in accordance with the principles of international and European standards of language learning, taking into account historical, cultural, social and economic, etc. features of Kazakhstan.

Vocabulary at elementary level makes 800 units, at pre-intermediate – 1783, at intermediate – 2229, at upper-intermediate – 3954 units, at advanced level – 5060 units. The purpose of selection of lexical units is analysis and systematization of active and passive word fund used in written and oral speech. In this regard the following task is defined: citizens learning language, have to be able to carry out communicative function in forms of monological and dialogical speech.

Minima of each level are based on the following main principles: the principle of systemacity, the principle of continuity, the developing principle, the principle of communication, the principle of productivity. System basic word stock has to promote formation of learner’s skills of using Kazakh language words and phrases correctly, ability to connect words and phrases, using lexical units properly according to communication situations.

Active and passive lexicons on various subjects are included in the work. Minima are structured after lexical steps and separated into semantic and theme groups. The contents of all steps are interconnected and have a certain sequence. The first step is presented by three parts of speech: nouns, adjectives, verbs; the second step: numerals, pronouns, adverbs; the third step: conjunctions, interjections. The phraseological fund of the Kazakh language (proverbs, sayings) and corresponding Russian and English equivalents are given separately. Division of parts of speech into lexical units facilitates the use of words in sentence, as each part of speech carries out a certain function. For the purpose of effective learning lexical units are divided into semantic groups and thematic blocks.

The basic word stock of elementary level is the first step of learning language. Words of this level are based on situations of everyday life. At this level a learner has to acquire the colloquial language material used in a daily life. At this level the lexico-semantic replacements caused by insufficient knowledge of semantics of synonymic ranks of lexical units are possible.

The basic word stocks of pre-intermediate, intermediate and upper-intermediate levels provide correct (semantically and stylistically correct) use of lexical units in speech communication. Here it is necessary to focus attention on gradual (from pre-intermediate to upper-intermediate) expansion of vocabulary and complication of grammatical and syntactic base. At these levels the literary norm of language and its correct use is of particular importance.

Lexical minimum of advanced level is directed towards fluent use of lexical units, relating to various social spheres of life, and also competent use in literary, scientific and professional focused direction. The number of words and phrases at each level increase taking into account the principle of gradual complication.

Basic word stocks of all levels are intended for learning Kazakh as a second and foreign language; for preparation for KAZTEST; for teachers, authors of manuals, researchers and scientists, competitioners and students, and also for laymen.

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Informational materials

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Computer testing of KAZTEST system




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